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Zerynthia cassandra


Zerynthia cassandra
Photo Information
Copyright: Silvio Sorcini (Silvio2006) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4577 W: 106 N: 6071] (54737)
Genre: Places
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2014-04-27
Categories: Nature
Exposure: f/11, 1/50 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2014-04-27 8:54
Viewed: 1493
Points: 36
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Zerynthia cassandra

Carl Geyer, 1828

Nome Volgare: Cassandra

Famiglia: Papilionidae

Lunghezza ala anteriore mm. 23 - 31

Note: questa specie è stata a lungo ritenuta una sottospecie di Zerynthia polyxena. Solo recentemente (Nazari & Sperling, 2007) sono state scoperte due linee genetiche a livello del DNA mitocondriale. La diffusione delle due linee genetiche ricalca l'esistenza di due morfotipi a livello dei genitali maschili. Uno dei due morfotipi (Z. polyxena) è distribuito dalla Francia alla Russia, l'altro morfotipo è limitato all'Italia peninsulare, alla Sicilia e all'Isola d'Elba. I due morfotipi sono anche simpatrici in almeno una località della Liguria nei pressi del Monte Beigua senza dar luogo a individui intermedi (ibridi). Queste evidenze dimostrano l'esistenza di due specie di Zerynthia. In particolare le popolazioni dell'Italia centro-meridionale devono essere riferite a Zerynthia cassandra che rappresenta quindi un elemento endemico italiano.

A parte la morfologia dei genitali maschili, Zerynthia cassandra è indistinguibile da Zerynthia polyxena, l’identificazione in questo caso è geografica.

Papilionide dalle dimensioni ridotte, con ali di colore di fondo giallo sul quale spiccano macchie rosse, lunule marginali molto arcuate e chiazze azzurre submarginali. La cellula presenta macchie rosse solo nella parte inferiore dell'ala. Mancano le appendici caudali. I sessi sono simili nella colorazione, ma la taglia della femmina è poco più grande.
La Casandra è una tra le più belle farfalle diurne italiane ed è inconfondibile per la sua vivace e marcata colorazione, la livrea delle ali si presenta di colore avorio/giallo con disegni neri trasversali ( simili ad un merletto), mentre una piccola fila di macchie rosse e azzurre orla il margine inferiore delle ali posteriori, dal caratteristico disegno a zig-zag.
I bruchi si nutrono di varie specie di aristolochie, compiono 5 mute nell'arco di 4/5 settimane, dopo di che le crisalidi, legate ad un sostegno, svernano per sfarfallare nella primavera successiva. Gli adulti sono attivi per non più di 3 settimane. Le piante nutrici sono le aristolochie, notoriamente tossiche; assimilate dai bruchi, passano nell'adulto rendendolo incommestibile per i predatori; pertanto, l'appariscente livrea della polissena assume il significato di avvertimento La colorazione della livrea dell'adulto, gialla, con caratteristici disegni neri, rossi e blu, è detta "aposematica" (cioè "ammonitrice"), in quanto serve proprio a scoraggiare i potenziali predatori. E' specie relativamente rara, sia per la riduzione degli ambienti palustri, sia per la conseguente scomparsa delle piante del genere Aristolochia di cui si nutre la larva monofaga.

Maschio: colore giallo con nervature e ampi disegni trasversali neri. Lunule submarginali formanti un disegno continuo a zig-zag. Serie postdiscale di macchie semilunari rosse affiancate da piccoli spazi blu nelle posteriori.

Femmina: simile al maschio ma generalmente più grande.

Rovescio: colore delle posteriori biancastro. Disegni simili al dritto ma parzialmente colorati di rosso.

Bruco: biancastro con quattro serie di escrescenze rossastre (scoli) ad apice nero.

Distribuzione: in Italia centro - meridionale.

Habitat: Specie mesofila si rinviene nei prati e nelle radure del piano basale fino a circa 1000 metri s.l.m.

Generazioni annuali: una sola con sfarfallamenti tra aprile e maggio

Piante nutrici: Aristolochia longa, Aristolochia pallida, Aristolochia rotonda.


Zerynthia cassandra

Carl Geyer, 1828

Vulgar Name : Cassandra

Family: Papilionidae

Length mm front wing . 23-31

Notes : this species has long been considered a subspecies of Zerynthia polyxena . Only recently ( Nazari & Sperling , 2007) were discovered two genetic lines at the level of mitochondrial DNA. The spread of the two genetic lines follows the existence of two morphotypes at the level of the male genitalia . One of the two morphotypes (Z. polyxena ) is deployed from France to Russia , the other morphotype is restricted peninsular Italy , Sicily and the island of Elba . The two morphotypes are also sympatric in at least one location in Liguria near Mount Beigua without giving rise to intermediate individuals (hybrids) . These findings demonstrate the existence of two species of Zerynthia . In particular, the populations of central and southern must be referred to Zerynthia cassandra representing an element endemic Italian .

A part of the morphology of the male genitalia, Zerynthia cassandra is indistinguishable from Zerynthia polyxena, the identification in this case is geographical .

Papilionide reduced size, with wings yellow background color for a distinctive red spots , marginal lunules very arched and blue submarginal spots. The cell has red spots only in the lower part of the wing. Lack the caudal appendages. The sexes are similar in coloration , but the size of the female is a little bigger.
The Cassandra is one of the most beautiful butterflies in Italian and is unique for its vibrant and strong color , the livery of the wings the color is ivory / yellow patterned blacks cross ( similar to a lace ), while a small row of spots red and blue borders the bottom edge of the hind wings , with a characteristic zig - zag pattern.
The caterpillars feed on various species of aristolochie , perform 5 mute within 4/5 weeks, after which the nymphs , tied to a support , overwinter to flicker in the following spring . The adults are active for no more than 3 weeks . The plants are the suckler aristolochie notoriously toxic ; assimilated by the caterpillars , making it inedible to pass in the adult predators ; therefore , the flashy livery of Polissena assumes the meaning of warning The coloring of the plumage of the adult, yellow , with characteristic drawings blacks , red and blue , is called " aposematica " (ie " cautionary " ) , as it just serves to discourage potential predators . It ' relatively rare species , and the reduction in the marshy areas , and for the consequent disappearance of plants of the genus Aristolochia that feeds the larvae monophagous .

Male : yellow with transverse ribs and large drawings blacks . Submarginal lunule forming a continuous zig- zag pattern . Postdiscale series of red spots semilunar flanked by small blue spaces in the rear .

Female : similar to male but generally larger.

Reverse: whitish color of the back . Similar designs on the obverse but partially colored red .

Caterpillar : Whitish with four sets of reddish growths ( drains ) to apex black .

Distribution: in Centtal – Southern Italy .

Habitat: mesophilic species is found in meadows and glades of the basal plane up to about 1000 meters above sea level

Generations per year : one with a flicker between April and May

Suckler plants : Aristolochia longa, Aristolochia pallida , Aristolochia rotunda.

shaukatmi, mesquens1, marine-coeur, Jonathan, imageme, colvert, pierrefonds has marked this note useful
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Discussions
ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To macedonia: LensSilvio2006 1 04-30 16:11
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Critiques [Translate]

Hi, Silvio. A lovely photo with colors, DOF and clarity of this unique butterfly. This is the season to see these lovely creatures. Cheers.

Bom dia Silvio,
Fine capture.
Great colors and tones.
Marvelous,
Carpe diem,
R.

Hi Silvio

Excellent exposure, good focus and depth of field. You have also captured fine detail.

  • Great 
  • RSK Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1089 W: 589 N: 1943] (14753)
  • [2014-04-27 12:50]

Greetings Silvio,
A vibrant macro, I wish I could take one this good. Perfect focus IMHO, 10 out of 10 from me.

Cheers

Ron

Hello Silvio, a beautiful butterfly, such lovely colours and patterns.
The sharp focus enables us to see all the delicate hairs on it's body.
Wonderful.
Tfs, regards Jean.

Love the markings and colors of this butterfly! Good lighting and sharp details. Well done, tfs.

Hi Silvio...excellent details and depth of field..nice work.

Roger

Hello Silvio, incredible sharpness and detail whilst simultaneously showing the delicate nature of the insect along with its exquisite detail. A fine shot.
regards
David

A 3D image and another kind of eye-expression
indeed great lights and details well done SILVIO SORCINI

Ciao Silvio,
Your short DOF has created a pinsharp image showing its unique patterns and colors, well captured.
erwin...

Hello Silvio

A wonderful side capture of this creature. Sharp and full of beautiful color and ontrast. Nice work

Jimmy

Great shot , beautiful focus colors and details. What kind of lens do you used ?

Zoran

Hi Silvio, What a macro shot of this butterfly.....excellent sharpness with extraordinary details....the hair is also visible. I like it. Best regards
Anna

Hello Silvio,
Wonderful composition. Very interesting and nice pattern of a butterfly's wings. Beautiful delicate flower.
Regards
Lucja

Hi Silvio, this little guy certainly stands out even next to pretty flowers. Lots of details in the wing patterns and love that eye. Fiona

  • Great 
  • nicou Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 2777 W: 0 N: 5194] (50772)
  • [2014-05-08 20:49]

Hello Silvio

quelle vue e tiamge quelle compo sueprbe ce papillon tout en finesse sueprbe captage et vue.
Bravo et amitié
Nicou

Bonjour Silvio
A very nice butterfly shot with the most perfect parameters to give so great sharpness against the blurred bg
Bon dimanche Sergio
Henri

Hi Silvio,

The flower is helping to frame the butterfly. The point of view is showing the details of the Zerynthia cassandra
butterfly. The good luminosity is enhancing the colors. Have a nice day.

Pierre

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